1950

  • 1950.0000 Electromagnetic launch article

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    In an article published in 1950, Arthur C Clarke proposed the direct electromagnetic launch (using a mass driver) of a space vehicle.

    Clarke, Arthur C (1950), Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Volume 9, pages 261-267

     

     

  • 1950.0000 Fermi Paradox

     

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    Fermi Paradox

    During a lunch at Los Alamos in the summer of 1950, Enrico Fermi reputedly asked colleagues “If there are extraterrestrials, where are they?”. (The precise quotation and date varies from source to source.)

    (Commonly referred to as “the Fermi Paradox”).

     

     

  • 1950.0000 Movie "Destination Moon"

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    "Destination Moon"

    The movieDestination Moon” (1950) was based on a novel by Robert Heinlein.

    It was directed by Irving Pichel.

     

     

  • 1950.0000 movie "The Flying Saucer"

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    "The Flying Saucer"
    The movieThe Flying Saucer” (1950) was produced by Michael Conrad.

     

     

     

  • 1950.0100 Keyhoe's "True" article

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    The January 1950 issue of True magazine included the article entitled “The Flying Saucers are Real” written by Donald Keyhoe.

     

     

     

     

     

  • 1950.0300 Commander McLaughlin's article

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    The March 1950 edition of Truemagazine contains the article entitled “How Scientists Tracked Flying Saucers” by Commander R B McLaughlin.

     

     

     

      

  • 1950.0300 Keyhoe's first book published

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    During March 1950Donald Keyhoe’s first UFO book, “The Flying Saucers are Real” is published

     For references and further information, see separate entry in relation to Donald Keyhoe’s book “The Flying Saucers are Real” (1950).

  • 1950.0317 Farmington "armada" incident

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    "Battle of Los Angeles"

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    On 17 March 1950, the Farmington, New Mexico incident involved reports of an “armada” of flying saucers.

    This incident is Case 97 in Isaac Koi's "Top 100" article, since it was referred to in 28 of the books covered by that article.

     

    Isaac Koi’s “ICES” Rating for this sighting = 5,390 (out of a potential score of 14*14*14*14 i.e. 38,416)

    (1) “Impact” Rating of 11 (out of a potential score of 14), because it is Case 97 in Isaac Koi's "Top 100" article.

    (2) “Credibility” Rating of 14 (out of a potential score of 14) because something clearly was seen by multiple witnesses. The debate regarding this incident has centered on what (if any) mundane explanation is available for these sightings.

    (2) “Expert” Rating of 7 (out of a potential score of 14). It is given this neutral rating because (at the time of writing) it has not been included in any of the short lists of the best cases produced by various UFO researchers that have been compiled by Isaac Koi (see the “Best UFO Cases" article at PART 3: Existing lists by various individuals), but also is not commonly given by UFO researchers as an example of an incident that can be explained by hoax, misperception or other mundane cause.

    (4)“Strangeness” Rating of 5 (out of a potential score of 14). The sighting has a relatively low strangeness rating since several researchers have put forward plausible mundane explanations for the sightings.

     

     

    Sections below:

    1. Web Resources

    2. Book References

    3. Other material

      

  • 1950.0322 FBI occupants memo

     

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    FBI occupants memo
    An FBI memo dated 22 March 1950 refers to flying saucers recovered in New Mexico, with occupants 3 feet tall.

     

     

     

     

  • 1950.0330 Rudolph Schriever article

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    On 30 March 1950, the West German magazine “Der Spiegel” reports Flugkapitan Rudolph Schriever as claiming to have begun work on a flying disc. Later reports stated Schriever claimed to begin work in the spring of 1941, with a prototype ready for testing in early 1944

     

     

     

  • 1950.0401 Wiesbadener Tagblatt alien hoax

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    On 1 April 1950, as an April Fools joke, the German newspaper WiesbadenerTagblattpublishes a purported photograph of an alien standing between two men in uniforms and caps

     See separate entry in relation to Koi Alien Photo 4.

     

     

     

  • 1950.0404 President Truman on UFOs

     

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    On 4 April 1950, President Truman reportedly made remarks about UFOs

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 1950.0511 McMinnville photographs

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    McMinnville photographs

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    On 11 May 1950, Paul Trent allegedly took two photographs of UFOs in McMinnville, Oregon.

    This incident is Case 17 in Isaac Koi's "Top 100" article, since it was referred to in 90 of the books covered by that article.

    UFO skeptic Robert Sheaffer has written that “Many UFOlogists rate this case as the strongest photo case on record”.

    This incident featured as the fourth best incident in a documentary produced by Paul Kimball entitled “Best Evidence: Top 10 UFO Cases”, purportedly based on the results of a survey conducted by Paul Kimball in 2005/2006 of “a select group of the world’s leading UFO researchers”.

    These photographs have also featured in:

    * a list of the “Top 10” UFO cases produced by James Carrion (in 2006),

    * a list of five noteworthy cases produced by Richard Dolan (in his book “UFOs and the National Security State: Volume 1”)

    * a list of the “Top 10” UFO cases produced by Stanton Friedman as part of a survey by the Fortean Times in 2007.

    * a list of seven UFO cases produced by Brad Sparks (in 1999)

    * a list of twenty UFO cases produced by Bruce Maccabee

    * a list of the best four photographic UFO cases produced by Ronald Story

    * a list by Paul Kimball of his own nominations for the top 10 cases.

     

     

    Isaac Koi’s “ICES” Rating for this sighting = 21,840 (out of a potential score of 14*14*14*14 i.e. 38,416)

    (1) “Impact” Rating of 14 (out of a potential score of 14), because it is Case 17 in Isaac Koi's "Top 100" article.

    (2) “Credibility” Rating of 10 (out of a potential score of 14) because while many ufologists suggest that the Trents could not, or at least did not, hoax the images a few other researchers (notably Robert Sheaffer) have put forward some reasons for considering the photographs to have been hoaxed.

    (2) “Expert” Rating of 13 (out of a potential score of 14). It is given this high rating because (at the time of writing) it has been included in quite a few of the short lists of the best cases produced by various UFO researchers that have been compiled by Isaac Koi (see the “Best UFO Cases" article at PART 3: Existing lists by various individuals).

    (4)“Strangeness” Rating of 12 (out of a potential score of 14). The sighting has a relatively high strangeness rating since it would be very difficult to reconcile the images and accompanying witness evidence with a misperception or misidentification of a mundane stimulus. The key issue is one of the credibility of the eyewitnesses and photographs.

     

     

    Sections below:

    1. Web Resources

    2. Book References

    3. Other material

     

     

  • 1950.0520 Gallup Poll

     

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    Gallup Poll
    On 20 May 1950, Gallup issues news release about a second Gallup Poll to include questions on UFOs. 5% of respondents indicated they thought “these flying saucers” were “comets, shooting stars, something from another planet”.

     

     

     

     

  • 1950.0529 Captain Sperry sighting

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    On 29 May 1950, Captain Willis Sperry reports a sighting on a flight from Washington DC to Tulsa, Oklahoma..

     

     

     

  • 1950.0815 Great Falls film

     

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    Great Falls film

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    During August 1950, the Great Falls, Montana movie was taken by Nicholas Mariana, the manager of the Great Falls baseball team. Commonly referred to as “the Great Falls Film” or “the Montana Film”.

    (The date of the sighting has been one of the many issues that has been the source of debate. 15 August and 5 August 1950 are both commonly suggested in various sources.)

    This incident is Case 41 in Isaac Koi's "Top 100" article, since it was referred to in 58of the books covered by that article.

    The Great Falls film was one of two motion pictures of UFO sightings considered by the Robertson Panel, organized by the CIA, in January 1953.

    In his book “UFOs Explained” (1974), Philip J Klass referred to the Great Falls footage as “the most impressive and famous UFO movie”. In his book “Scientific Ufology” (1999), Kevin D Randle wrote that the Great Falls footage “would become one of the best, and, therefore most controversial pieces of physical evidence available”.

    This incident has also featured in a list of cases produced by British ufologist Gary Heseltine for the Fortean Times in 2007 as part of a survey of various researchers of the ten cases from 1947 onwards that interested them the most.

     

    Isaac Koi’s “ICES” Rating for this sighting = 7,020 (out of a potential score of 14*14*14*14 i.e. 38,416)

    (1) “Impact” Rating of 13 (out of a potential score of 14), because it is Case 41 in Isaac Koi's "Top 100" article.

    (2) “Credibility” Rating of 10 (out of a potential score of 14) because the debate regarding this incident has centered on what was filmed, rather than whether the incident was a hoax - although there have been several persuasive suggestions that the eyewitness accounts included some significant embellishments.

    (2) “Expert” Rating of 9 (out of a potential score of 14). It is given this above slightly above average rating because (at the time of writing) it has been included in a small number of the short lists of the best cases produced by various UFO researchers that have been compiled by Isaac Koi (see the “Best UFO Cases" article at PART 3: Existing lists by various individuals).

    (4)“Strangeness” Rating of 6 (out of a potential score of 14). The sighting has a below average strangeness rating since there is relatively limited evidence to be explained as to the nature of the objects that was filmed. Several researchers have plausibly suggested that the objects that were filmed were merely aircraft.

     

     

    Sections below:

    1. Web Resources

    2. Book References

    3. Other material

     

     

  • 1950.0925 JANAP 146(A)

     

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    JANAP 146(A)
    On 25 September 1950, JANAP(Joint Army Navy Air Publication) 146(A) was officially issued, referring to UFOs.

    JANAP 146 was first issued on 1 October 1948 without any reference to UFOs.

    JANAP 146 was declassified on 12 December 1953.

     

  • 1950.1008 English newspapers

     

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    English newspapers

    On 8 October 1950, several Sunday newspapers in England began to publish extracts of various UFO books.

    The Sunday Express began its serialisation of Gerald Heard’s “Is Another World Watching Us?”.

    The Sunday Dispatch published extracts of Frank Scully’s “Behind the Flying Saucers” and Donald Keyhoe’s “Flying Saucers are Real”.

     

  • 1950.1100 "To Serve Man"

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    In November 1950, Damon Knight's short story “To Serve Man" was published in Galaxy Science Fiction.

     

     

     

     

     

  • 1950.1121 Wilbert B Smith memo

     

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    Wilbert B Smith memo
    On 21 November 1950, a memo written by Wilbert B(rockhouse) Smith refers to “discreet enquiries through the Canadian Embassy staff in Washington” which allegedly obtained information that “flying saucers exist” and that “the matter is the most highly classified subject in the United States, rating higher even than the H-bomb”

     

     

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